Customs & Border Costs

Dr Andrew Grainger has been involved in a wide range of trade facilitation focused cost studies. These might be specific to industry sectors, control regimes (e.g. Customs), or at the country level.

Recent conceptual work in collaboration with TU Delft about the costs of customs and borders across the supply chain has been published in the World Customs Journal.


A proposal with colleagues at the University of Nottingham for developing a method to measure trade facilitation was presented at the World Customs Organisation’s Picard Conference in 2017 – and has since been published in WCO News.


Dr Andrew Grainger’s work about the cost of importing meat into the UK received a lot of attention within the context of Brexit.